Vitamin A (Beta Carotene) is necessary for repair and growth of body tissues. It is used in the treatment of vision problems, breast cancer, and skin wrinkling. (Ross A.C., Ternus M.E., Vitamin A as a hormone: recent advances in understanding the actions of retinol, retinoic acid, and beta carotene. J Am Diet Assoc; 93(11): 1285-90, Nov 1993).
Vitamin B-1 (Thiamin) benefits the heart and cardiovascular system. It is also important for growth, energy production and digestion. In a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled trial utilizing 222 people aged 65 or over, researchers concluded that the quality of life was enhanced by providing thiamin supplements. Blood pressure and weight were lower after thiamin supplementation. (Wilkinson TJ; Hanger HC; Elmslie J; George PM; Sainsbury R. The response to treatment of sub clinical thiamine deficiency in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr; 66(4): 925-8, Oct 1997).
Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin) is important for healthy skin, tissue repair and red blood cell formation.
Niacinimide (Vitamin B-3) improves circulation and reduces cholesterol levels in the blood.
Pantothenic Acid helps convert proteins, fats, and carbohydrates into energy, improves the body's resistance to stress.
Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine) promotes healthy gums, teeth, red blood cells, and is necessary for synthesis of amino acids.
PABA (Para Amino Benzoic Acid) plays a key role in skin pigmentation and hair colour.
Vitamin B-12 (Cobalamin) helps prevent anaemia by aiding in formation of red blood cells.
Folic Acid is important for red cell production, tissue cells, and a healthy intestinal tract.
Biotin (Vitamin H) promotes healthy hair and skin. It plays a critical role in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. (Mock, D.M. Biotin. In: Present Knowledge in Nutrition (Ziegler, E.E. and Filer, L. J., eds.), 7th ed., pp. 220-235. International Life Sciences Institute Press, Washington, DC, 1996).
Choline is an essential nutrient needed for cell membrane integrity. It plays a significant role in controlling fat and cholesterol. It is also a component of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and is needed for normal brain functioning.
Inositol is required for proper formation of cell membranes. It affects nerve transmission and helps in transporting fats within the body.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) helps build resistance to infections, aids in the prevention of the common cold, prevents scurvy, and is critical to the maintenance of healthy gums, skin, and blood. It is a major antioxidant, and plays a significant role in cardiovascular disease (CVD). According Matthias Rath M.D. and Linus Pauling Ph.D: "…ascorbate deficiency is the common cause of human CVD, ascorbate supplementation is the universal treatment for this disease. The available epidemiological and clinical evidence is reasonably convincing. Further clinical confirmation of this theory should lead to the abolition of CVD as a cause of human mortality for the present generation and future generations of mankind." (The Linus Pauling/Matthias Rath Unified Theory of Human Cardiovascular Disease On-line paper published in the J. of Orthomolecular Medicine; http://www.orthomed.org/links/papers/rathpau.htm).
Vitamin D benefits teeth, bones, and optimizes calcium and phosphorous metabolism.
Vitamin E is a major antioxidant and delays cellular aging due to oxidation. It protects cell membranes and tissues, and brings nourishment to cells. (Meydani, S. N., Meydani, M., Blumberg, J. B., Leka, L. S., Siber, G., Loszewski, R., Thompson, C., Pedrosa, M. C., Diamond, R. D., Stollar, B. D. Vitamin E supplementation enhances in vivo immune response in healthy elderly: A dose-response study. JAMA. 277: 1380-1386, 1997)
Calcium promotes bone and teeth health, and assists in the passage of nutrients in and out of cell walls. Please see Bone Strengthener Plus for additional information. Calcium and Vitamin D supplementation in the elderly helps reduce the incidence of fractures. (Dawson-Hughes, B., Harris, S.S., Krall, E. A. & Dallal, G. E. Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women age 65 and older. New Engl. J. Med. 337: 670-676, 1997).
Chromium is important for carbohydrate metabolism. It works with insulin in the metabolism and stabilization of blood sugar levels. (Stoecker, B. J., Chromium. In: Present Knowledge in Nutrition (Ziegler, E. E. & Filer, L. J., Jr., eds.), 7th ed., pp. 344-352. International Life Sciences Institute Press, Washington, DC., 1996).
Copper is necessary for the absorption and utilization of iron. Copper deficiency may also play a role in heart disease. (Medeiros, D. M. & Wildman, R., New findings on a unified perspective of copper restriction and cardiomyopathy. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 215: 299-313, 1997).
Iodine aids in the functioning of the thyroid gland. "Comparative epidemiologic studies in areas with low and high iodine intake and controlled studies of iodine supplementation have demonstrated that the major consequence of mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency for the health of the population is an extraordinarily high occurrence of hyperthyroidism in elderly subjects, especially women, with risk of cardiac arrhythmias, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting." (Laurberg P., Nohr S.B., Pedersen K.M., Hreidarsson A.B., Andersen S., Bulow Pedersen I., Knudsen N., Perrild H., Jorgensen T., and Ovesen L. Thyroid disorders in mild iodine deficiency. Department of Endocrinology and Medicine, Aalborg Hospital, Denmark. Thyroid; 10(11): 951-63, Nov 2000).
Iron combines with protein and copper in manufacturing hemoglobin which transports oxygen in the blood from the lungs to the tissues. Iron deficiency results in anemia. A recent study indicates that the prevalence of iron deficiency anemia is higher in athletic populations and groups, especially in younger female athletes, than in healthy sedentary individuals. The young female athlete may want to consider use of low-dose iron supplements to prevent a decline in iron status during training. (Beard J., Tobin B. Iron status and exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 72(2 Suppl): 594S-7S,Aug 2000).
Magnesium is a mineral needed by every cell of the body. Magnesium is needed for at least 300 fundamental enzymatic reactions in the body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, and bones strong. It is also involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis. Evidence suggests that magnesium may play an important role in regulating blood pressure. (Paolisso, G. and Barbagallo, M. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance: the role of intracellular magnesium. Amer. J. Hyperten. 10: 346-355, 1997).
Diets that provide plenty of fruits and vegetables, good sources of potassium and magnesium, are consistently associated with lower blood pressure. Results of two national surveys, the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III-1988-91) and the Continuing Survey of Food Intakes of Individuals (1994 CSFII), indicated that the diets of most adult men and women do not provide the recommended amounts of magnesium.
Manganese is an essential trace mineral that is concentrated primarily in the bone, liver, pancreas, and brain. It is necessary for proper digestion, sex hormone production, and is a catalyst in the breakdown of fats and cholesterol. It is also an important antioxidant. An animal study conducted at the University of Maine found that manganese deficiency may affect arterial wall integrity and subsequently cardiovascular health. (Yang P., and Klimis-Tavantzis D.J. Effects of dietary manganese on arterial glycosaminoglycan metabolism in Sprague-Dawley rats. Biol Trace Elem Res; 64(1-3): 275-88, Summer 1998).
Potassium is mostly found in muscle tissue. Deficiency symptoms include irregular heartbeat, muscular weakness, and build -up of lactic acid. Research also indicates that there may be a relationship between high blood pressure and potassium depletion. A study conducted at the University of Arkansas school for medical science concluded that; "An increase in potassium intake should be included in the nonpharmacologic management of patients with uncomplicated hypertension." (Barri Y.M. and Wingo C.S. The effects of potassium depletion and supplementation on blood pressure: a clinical review. Am J Med Sci; 314(1): 37-40, Jul 1997).
Selenium is a major antioxidant and prevents free radical generation, thus decreasing the risk of cancer. (Combs, G. F., Jr. & Gray, W. P. Chemopreventive agents: selenium. Pharmacol. Expt. Therapeut. 79: 179-192, 1998). Other studies indicate that selenium deficiency may result in heart disease, premature aging, dandruff, and loose skin.
Zinc is an antioxidant nutrient necessary for protein synthesis, wound healing, male hormone production, and reproductive organ health. A recent study at Michigan State University concluded that there is substantial evidence that zinc supplementation may reduce the impact of many diseases, including; sickle cell anemia, renal disease, and chronic gastrointestinal disorders.(Fraker P.J., King L.E., Laakko T., Vollmer T.L. The dynamic link between the integrity of the immune system and zinc status, J Nutr; 130(5S Suppl): 1399S-406S, May 2000).
RNA (Ribonucleic Acid) and DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) are the genetic materials that serve as the blueprints for the formation of new cells.
Bioflavonoids are a class of water-soluble plant pigments. They are divided into the following subcategories: isoflavones, anthocyanins, flavans, favonols, flavones, and flavanones. Some bioflavonoids support health as anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, and antiviral agents.
Quercetin is bioflavonoid and has been reported to aid in problems associated with diabetes.
Rutin is another bioflavonoid that appears to protect blood vessels.
Hesperidin is an antioxidant that works best when given with Vitamin C and other bioflavinoids.
Eriocitrin is a flavonoid glycoside present in lemons. It plays an important antioxidant role.
Bromelain is a Pineapple enzyme that promotes healing of injured tissues
Papain is an enzyme extracted from the juice of unripe papaya fruit. It is used to treat inflammations and accelerates wound healing.
Betaine HCI is the carboxylic acid derived by oxidation of choline. The hydrochloride salt is used as a gastric acidifier.
Apple Pectin is used in the pharmaceutical industry to reduce blood cholesterol levels and gastrointestinal disorders.
Amylase is an enzyme that aids in digestion. It is also involved in anti-inflammatory reactions such as those caused by the release of histamine and similar substances
Lipase Fat is any enzyme that helps to digest dietary fats. It is produced by the pancreas and released into the small intestine, where it helps digest fat.
Chlorophyll is the substance responsible for the green color in plants. It has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and wound-healing properties.
Carotenoids are the major yellow and red pigments in many fruits and vegetables. It has antioxidant and immune-enhancing properties.
Black Currant Seed is rich in gamma linolenic acid (GLA). It has anti-inflammatory properties and an immune-enhancing effect. (Wu D., Meydani M., Leka LS., Nightingale Z., Handelman G. J., Blumberg J.B., Meydani S. Effect of dietary supplementation with black currant seed oil on the immune response of healthy elderly subjects Am J Clin Nutr; 70(4): 536-43, Oct 1999).
Sunflower Oil contains linoleic acid, which may aid in reducing high cholesterol.
Spirulina (Blue-green algae) is rich in protein. It also contains carotenoids, vitamins, minerals, and essential fatty acids.
Bee Pollen has been shown to have several beneficial applications for human use. Pollen has been successfully used for treatment of some cases of benign prostatitis, and allergy desensitization.
Siberian Ginseng has been shown to enhance mental acuity and physical endurance without the let down that comes with caffeinated products. (Farnsworth N.R., Kinghorn A.D., Soejarto D.D., Waller D.P.Siberian ginseng (Eleutheroecoccus senticosus): Current status as an adaptogen. Economic and Medicinal Plant Research, vol 1, ed. H Wagner, HZ Hikino, NR Farnsworth. London: Academic Press, 155-215, 1985).
Octacosanol is a waxy substance found in some plant oils. It is the primary component of sugar cane extract called policosanol which has been reported to lower LDL cholesterol (the "bad" cholesterol) while raising HDL cholesterol (the "good" cholesterol) levels. (Castano G., Tula L., Canetti M., et al. Effects of policosanol in hypertensive patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. Curr Ther Res;57:691-95, 1996).
Astragalus stimulates the immune system. It appears to increase the number of stem cells in the marrow and lymph tissue, and stimulates their development into active immune cells.
Ligustrum is the main active compound in the plant Ligustrin. Lingustrum is often combined with Astralagus to stimulate the immune system.
Schisandra is often used to reduce fatigue, improve work performance, and build strength. (Foster S., and Yue C.X. Herbal Emissaries: Bringing Chinese Herbs to the West. Rochester, VT: Healing Arts Press, 146-52, 1992).
Young Barley Leaves have a cleansing and detoxifying effect on the body. Young Barley Leaves are high in vitamins, minerals, live enzymes, anti-oxidants, amino acids and chlorophyll.
Echinacea is used to prevent and treat the common cold, influenza and infections. (Barrett, B., Vohmann, M., and Calabrese, C.The Journal of Family Practice, Vol. 48, No. 8, pp. 628-635, 1999).
Irish Moss also known as Carrageen and Pearl Moss, is a seaweed that grows off the coast of France and Ireland. It is used to sooth the gastrointestinal tract.
Thyme, other than its use as a spice, acts as an antispasmotic and is used in the treatment of dry, spasmodic coughs as well as bronchitis.
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